As Kenya takes action to achieve its Visions 2030 development aspirations, GHG emissions will rise. Moving to a low carbon development pathway will ensure that Kenya’s contribution to global emissions remains low. Climate change mitigation actions, described below, reduce or prevent GHG emissions by using new technologies, improving energy efficiency, and sequestering carbon in soils or trees. Many of these actions have been catalysed by mechanisms under the UNFCCC, such as the CDM, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and REDD+.

NAMAs: development of NAMA proposals to attract investment for for biogas, bus rapid transit system, clean cook stoves and solar lighting, geothermal and waste initiatives.

Partners: MENRRDA, MOEP, Mitigation Momentum Project that is funded by the Government of the Germany, UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme that is funded by the European Commission and the Governments of Germany and Australia, Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) that is funded by Governments of the Netherlands and United Kingdom

Geothermal: installed capacity of geothermal reached 573 megawatts (MW) in July 2015. The commissioning of two geothermal plants in 2015 meant that geothermal contribution to Kenya’s national energy mix increased to approximately 50 per cent. Electricity generated by this clean, renewable clean source of energy is expected to increase to 1,800 by 2017 and 5,000 MW by 2030.

Partners: MOEP, Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), Geothermal Development Corporation (GDC) with loan support from the World Bank, European Investment Bank, African Development Bank (AfDB) and the Governments of France, Japan and Germany

Wind Power Projects: the Lake Turkana Wind power project to be constructed on a 40,000 acre site in Marsabit County is the largest wind farm in Africa. When completed, 365 wind turbines will generate 310 MW of electricity. The Ngong Hills wind farm contributes 25 MW of electricity to the national grid. Pipeline projects include a 100 MW wind farm in Kajiado, and a 90 MW project in Lamu.

Partners: MOEP, KenGen, Kenya Electricity Transmission Company, AfDB, European Investment Bank, KfW (Germany), Proparco (France), FMO Netherlands, and Government of Belgium

Mini-Grids: provides access to clean energy through the creation of green hydro and solar installations that serve rural communities that are not connected to the main electricity grid.

Partners: MOEP, KenGen, World Bank, African Development Bank, UNDP, Governments of France, Germany, United Kingdom and United States

Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway Project: the biggest infrastructure project in Kenya since independence will shift movement of freight from road to rail consistent with the priorities of the NCCAP. The 609 kilometre line will initially be diesel-powered, with the possibility of electrification in future. It will have the capacity to transport 22 million tonnes a year of cargo (about 40 per cent of cargo from Mombasa port) and 960 passengers per trip, travelling at 120 kilometres per hour. The project will connect Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan in subsequent phases.

Partners: Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, Kenya Railways Corporation, China Road and Bridge Corporation, China Exim Bank

Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) System for Nairobi: will provide dedicated lanes and off-board fare collection to enhance service delivery. It will decongest the city roads and improve local air quality. The first of five interconnected lines is expected to be operational in Nairobi by 2018.

Partners: Nairobi County Government, Ministry of Transport, World Bank, AfDB, Government of Japan, European Union in partnership with KfW and European Investment Bank

Green Schools Programme: launched by his Excellency the President in 2013, aims to plant three million seedlings per year schools by planting trees in the compounds of public schools.

Partners: MENRRDA, KFS, UK Government support for model school in Nyandarua County

Sustainable Forestry Management programmes: support the goal of 10 per cent forest cover through improved see production, REDD+ activities and tree breeding.

Partners: MENRRDA, KFS, European Commission, Governments of Japan and Finland

Kasigau Corridor REDD project: protects 200,000 hectares of dry land forest in Taita Taveta. It is first activity in Africa to issue voluntary forestry carbon credits, and provides the benefits of carbon financing to nearly 150,000 people, creating 400 jobs and promoting agricultural intensification, fuel wood substitution and agroforestry.

Partners: Wildlife Works, BNP Paribas, Nedbank Group

Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project: benefits 60,000 smallholder farmers in Kisumu and Kitale, who have improved farming practices though integrated water management, sustainable intensification, improved weather management and agroforestry. It is the first project in Africa to sell soil carbon credits on the voluntary markets.

Partners: World Bank Bio Carbon Fund, SCC-VI Agroforestry

Eco Manyatta Afrika: promotes green building principles through design and construction of a prototype eco-manyatta in Narok. The eco-manyatta is constructed using interlocking brick blocks instead of trees. Biogas systems are used for cooking and solar energy provides lighting.

Partners: Narok County Government, International Labour Organization, UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and UN Human Settlements Programme with support of the UK Government

Improved Cookstoves: Energizing Development Kenya County Programme has supported over 1.5 million households to invest in improved cook stoves and 120,000 households to access small solar systems for lighting and basic electricity services. ClimateCare is managing a loan programme that has distributed ethanol cook stoves in Kibera and improved charcoal jikos at Finlay Farm. Stove testing facilities have been established at the University of Nairobi and the Kenya Industrial Research Institute. Burns Manufacturing has established a factory for the local manufacture of the Jiko Koa.

Partners: MOEP; Governments of Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Australia, UK and Switzerland

Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) Centre for Energy Efficiency and Conservation: provides subsidized energy audits and energy efficiency training. KAM works with Cooperative and Stanbic Banks to provide loans for companies to invest in recommended renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Partners: MOEP, supported by the Governments of Denmark, France and the United Kingdom

M-Kopa Solar: provides pay-as-you-go solar lighting systems for off-grid households. The systems provide lighting, phone charging and power for a radio. Payments are made via Safaricom’s M-Pesa mobile money platform.

Ubbink East Africa: produces solar panels using imported components at a Naivasha factory that is the first solar module manufacturing site in the East Africa community.

Tamambuzi flower farm: installation of a 60 kW solar system to reduce operational expenses, cut carbon dioxide emissions, and provide lighting to employees’ homes, replacing kerosene lights.

Biojoule Kenya, a subsidiary of the VP Group: Kenya’s first biogas electricity producer with a plant in Naivasha that produces 2.6 MW of electricity using crop waste, providing 2 MW to the national grid.

Oserian Flower Farm: US$ 12 million investment in a 3 MW geothermal power plant in Naivasha that provides 98 per cent of the company’s electricity requirements.

Mumias Sugar Company: a CDM project, this 35 MW bagasse based cogeneration project supports the company’s power requirements and exports excess electricity to the national grid.